There are many substances around us.
They all have their own properties which is how we recognise them.

Physical properties : colour, strength, malleable or brittle, conductor or insulator, high or low density, high or low melting point

Chemical properties: Does it burn, solubility in water, effect of acids

Substance Property
Aluminium A pale, silvery metal. Very light. Often used to make ‘alloy’ wheels and aircrafts
Lead A grey metal which is soft and bendy. Often used on roofs although it is rather heavy.
Copper A pink metal used to make electric wires and water pipes
Graphite A grey substance that is used to make pencil ‘leads’.
Mercury A grey liquid metal
Sulphur A yellow crumbly solid that burns to make a smelly gas
Brass An alloy of copper and zinc
Tin The substance coated over ‘tin’ cans to stop the iron going rusty
Zinc The substance coated over iron to make galvanized iron.
Perspex A clear plastic often used as a replacement for glass
Gold A precious metal. It is yellow and very heavy. Used to make jewellery.

Substances can be divided into categories like:
Metals, ceramics (china), plastics, glass  ..     each with their own set of properties

example questions:
1. What properties of aluminium make it suitable for building planes?
answer: because it is light, strong and doesn’t corrode

2. Give two advantages of using iron to build a bicycle frame and two disadvantages
Advantages: strong and cheap
Disadvantages: Goes rusty and is heavy

3. Which of these would be the best substance to build a washing up bowl:  plastic, glass, iron
answer: plastic

Give one advantage and one disadvantage of the substance you have chosen:
advantage: cheap, easy to mould into shape
disadvantage: melts easily. Not very strong